Step by Step Companion Planting Guide for Vegetable Gardens


    What is Companion planting ?

    It takes more than sunlight, water, and good soil to keep plants happy and healthy. Many of them love that other plant companies grow and thrive. Just as some plants ward off unwanted insects, there are special plants that, when grown in close proximity, provide enormous benefits to their neighbors. This is called companion landing.

    “Many believe that certain combinations of plants have an extraordinary (even mysterious) ability to help each other grow,” write the editors of Good Housekeeping.

    But there is nothing mysterious about this. Companion planting began thousands of years ago and is still used by gardeners and backyard farmers today. Native people living in America practiced many forms of companion planting long before the arrival of Europeans.

    One of the earliest documented examples was the Three Sisters agricultural technique in which winter gourds, beans, and corn were planted together. The corn provided a stalk for the bean to grow high in the sun. The squash then sank to the ground, in the shade of corn and beans, protecting these plants from weeds.

    What vegetables can be planted together chart?


    I offer you a short table of vegetable compatibility. More information is available later in the article.

    VegetablesSuccessful neighborhoodUnfortunate neighborhood
    AsparagusTomatoesNot
    BeansCorn, celery, garden savory, cucumbers, radishes, strawberriesOnion and garlic
    BeetCabbage, broccoli, lettuce, onion, garlicBeans
    White cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sproutsBeets, Swiss chard, potatoes, celery, dill, lettuce, onions, spinachbeans
    CarrotLegumes, tomatoesNot
    CeleryBeans, tomatoes, cabbageNot
    CornCucumbers, watermelons, pumpkin, peas, beans, pumpkinTomatoes
    CucumbersBeans, corn, peas, cabbageNot
    EggplantBeans, peppersNot
    MelonCorn, pumpkin, radish, zucchiniNot
    BowBeets, carrots, Swiss chard, lettuce, pepperLegumes
    PeasBeans, cucumbers, turnips, carrots, corn, radishes.Onion garlic
    PotatoesBeans, corn, peasTomatoes
    ZucchiniCorn, melon, pumpkinNot
    TomatoesCarrots, celery, cucumbers, onions, peppersCorn, kohlrabi, potatoes

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    What plants should not be planted next to each other?


     *Potatoes and tomatoes.  Despite the fact that these plants are, in fact, close relatives, they cannot grow and develop nearby.  ...
     *Cabbage and radish.  These plants also belong to the same family - cruciferous plants.  ...
     *Carrots and dill.  ...
     *Garlic and beans.  ...
     *Cucumbers and zucchini.  ...
     *Grapes and cabbage.  ...
    * Onions and peas.

    What are the benefits of companion planting?


    This early trio shows just a few of the ways that plants can support each other.

    “The benefits of companion planting include pest control, nitrogen fixation, providing support for one plant to another, increasing nutrient absorption and water retention, among other benefits,” writes Leonard Gitinji, Ph.D., assistant professor and extension specialist at Virginia State University. "Consequently, planting companions can lead to increased yields, less dependence on pesticides and increased biodiversity, helping to bring a balanced ecosystem to your garden and allowing nature to do its job."

    The Old Farmer's Almanac lists many reasons for growing certain plants next to each other:

    • Shade - Large plants protect smaller plants from the sun.
    • Support - Tall plants like corn and sunflower can support growing crops like cucumbers and peas.
    • Better health - The plant can absorb substances from the soil, altering soil biochemistry to help other plants.
  1. Soil Benefits - Some plants produce more nitrogen. Other plants produce nutrients from deep within the soil, which helps plants with shallow roots.
  2. Weed Control - Sprawling plants cover open areas to inhibit weed growth.
  3. Here's a look at some common garden plants and their supposed companions.


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    Companion planting tomatoes

    Companion planting tomatoes



    Tomatoes and basil complement each other in and out of the soil. 

    If you want to offer your tomato plants some useful companions, dill and basil can protect tomatoes from worms. Todd Weinmann of North Dakota State University's Department of Agriculture offers these suggestions for Burpee's “companions” and “allies”. (Companions are plants that are mutually beneficial when grown together, while allies are plants that provide protection or help other plants grow, explains the Cass County Extension.)

    Companions include asparagus, carrots, celery, cucumber, onions, parsley, and peppers. Plants that provide even more benefits for tomatoes include:

    Basil - repels flies and mosquitoes and improves growth and taste

    Bee Balm, Green Onions and Mint - Improve Health and Taste

    Borage - Retains tomato worm and improves growth and flavor

    Dill - improves growth and health until maturity (slows down the growth of tomatoes after ripening)

    Marigolds - keeps nematodes (and potted marigolds hold back tomato worm and common garden pests).

    Companion plants for butternut squash

    Companion plants for butternut squash




    Nasturtium helps to ward off beetles and beetles in squash. 

    Weinmann says corn, melon, and pumpkin are good squash companions. To take it one step further, there are other plants that play a more protective role.

    Marigolds repel beetles. Nasturtiums scare off beetles and bedbugs. Oregano protects against pests in general. Borage repels worms and also helps improve flavor and growth.


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    Pea planting companion

    Pea planting companion


    Other plants can provide physical and nutritional support to peas. 

    When planting peas, consider beans, carrots, corn, cucumbers, radishes, and turnips as good neighbors. For even more beneficial growth, chives are a good option for aphid protection, and planting mint nearby can help improve health and flavor.


    Herb planting companion

    Herb planting companion

    Gardeners know that herbs are good on their own, but they also offer benefits when combined with specific plants. Here are some additional combinations, according to the Old Farmer's Almanac.

    Basil - A plant with tomatoes to repel flies and mosquitoes

    Chives - Plant with Carrots

    Peppermint - keeps white cabbage moths near cabbages and tomatoes

    Oregano - good with all vegetables

    Parsley - A plant near asparagus, corn and tomatoes.

    Rosemary - Retains legume beetles, carrot flies and cabbage moths. Plant next to kale, beans, carrots, and sage.

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    Companion plants with calendula

    Companion plants with calendula
    Marigolds protect tomatoes and other plants from nematodes in the soil. 

    The little fire marigolds not only add brightness to your yard, but they also fulfill “a triple duty in the garden,” says the gardener.

    In particular, French marigolds (Tagetes patula) are an easy and healthy choice for your garden. "Marigolds can induce beneficial insects, repel unwanted beetles with their strong odor (also masking tasty substances) and have a compound they release that fights nematodes in the soil," the website says.

    Other "companions" of landing ideas


    People sometimes call "planting mates" plants that look good together. 

    You may also hear "companion planting" when you talk about gardening. In this case, however, they are often plants that like similar conditions - lighting, soil, water - but they don't necessarily give each other any advantages. Sometimes these plants just look good planted next to each other.



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